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Comment utiliser les cartes mentales ?

Comment utiliser les cartes mentales ?


Pour les cartes profs

Les cartes profs permettent à l’enseignant d’avoir une vision globale de certaines notions de cycle 4. Il est conseillé de prendre connaissance de l’intégralité de ces cartes avant d’aborder les séances d’enseignement correspondantes.

Une carte prof est complexe ; il est déconseillé de la présenter en entier en une seule fois.

 

Pour les cartes élèves

- Travailler en classe sur les cartes proposées a notamment pour objectif de permettre aux élèves de se familiariser avec ce type de présentation.

  • Pour réactiver une notion vue les années précédentes, on pourra imprimer la carte imprimable correspondante au format A4 et la distribuer aux élèves. Pour cet usage, il est néanmoins conseillé de proposer des travaux collectifs et réflexions en classe avant la distribution de la carte. On pourra également distribuer des cartes imprimables à des élèves arrivés en cours d’année pour faire le point avec eux sur leurs connaissances.

  • Si la carte mentale est utilisée comme support de cours, elle sera la trace écrite pour l’élève, remplaçant ainsi un cours linéaire plus classique. L’enseignant, après avoir pris connaissance de la carte finalisée, projettera la carte interactive et ouvrira les nœuds au fur et à mesure des besoins. Il pourra proposer des exemples en plus de ceux déjà présents dans la carte.
    L’enseignant peut, une fois toutes les connaissances et compétences vues, imprimer et distribuer aux élèves la carte imprimable (qui n’a pas vocation à être donnée aux élèves sans accompagnement). Il peut également imprimer et distribuer une carte partiellement remplie à partir de la version interactive.

- Une fois les élèves familiarisés avec le principe de la carte mentale, l’enseignant peut leur demander de réaliser leurs propres cartes pour résumer une notion. Il est cependant conseillé de laisser le choix aux élèves de faire leur résumé de cours sous forme linéaire ou sous forme de carte mentale, en fonction de l’outil avec lequel ils sont le plus à l’aise. L’expérience montre qu’au fil de l’année, plus l’élève est confronté aux cartes (et pas seulement en mathématiques), et plus il sera à l’aise avec leur construction.

Dans ce cas, l’enseignant peut projeter les nœuds principaux de la carte interactive, pour proposer aux élèves une architecture possible ; mais il ne projettera alors pas la carte complète avant que les élèves n’aient créé leur propre carte, pour éviter de normaliser leur pensée, et pour les laisser proposer une carte personnelle.

Dans le cadre de ce travail de création de carte, l’enseignant peut indiquer aux élèves qu’ils sont libres d’intégrer dans leur carte tout élément graphique parlant pour eux susceptible de leur faciliter l’appropriation du contenu de leur carte : dessin, logo, photo, etc. Il peut aussi leur rappeler qu’un des atouts des cartes mentales et de faciliter la création de liens entre les connaissances et compétences.

Une fois les cartes personnelles terminées, l’enseignant peut proposer un moment de mise en commun, en groupe ou en classe entière, d’une part pour valider le contenu des cartes proposées, d’autre part pour faire ressortir ce qui est essentiel. Il peut alors projeter la carte interactive complétée (totalement ou partiellement).

 

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